(Poussin/The Shepherds of Arcadia/1638)
they are methodically planned/geometrical in design/they manifest the rationality sought by Louis XIV
geometrical units were tightly arranged with focal points at their centers (like sculptures, pavilions, reflecting pools and fountains/ the design loosens the farther away you get from the palace/ trees frame or screen open views of the countryside
apparently, one must walk through the garden to understand its dynamic design/ the park unfolds itself to its visitors
Notice: the tension and counter forces of the muscularity-- the strain in their arms as they let down the dead Christ. The contortion and foreshortened anatomy reminiscent of reminiscent of Michelangelo's paintings and sculptures. The energetic violence, physical and emotional distress, stressing sinew and anguished faces: parallel to Mannerism's transformation to Baroque. The colors of Titian. These bold colors and dramatic light would later give way to a subtler style. Baroque intimations: dynamic composition/diagonal sensuality.
The Mannerism of Bronzino and Michelangelo + the color and texture of the venetian school of Titian + the light and dark of Caravaggisiti = Rubens
Depicted is Marie's arrival in France from Italy. She is en route to her marriage to King Henry IV. Fame flies above her, trumpeting her arrival. Neptune and his son Triton, accompanied by 3 water nymphs, emerge from the sea to greet her. France (the helmeted man wearing a fleur-de-lis robe) bows before her. Marie is nestled in a flourish of rich textures and colors (she was not known for her beauty).Arrival of Marie de Medici at Marseilles
Notice: The fleshy bodies of nymphs. These fleshy bodies are known as Rubenesque. Fleshy folds and drapes over their bodies with...freedom. They are sensual in a way that does not quite translate well into contemporary tastes. But you can tell that these ladies indulge in a sensual life-- in excess.
One must make a distinction between taste and educated taste. First, I must insist that in order to be empathetic of all people, I must understand that people's reasons for viewing art vary greatly-- some view art for catharsis, some for enjoyment, others view art for education. Thus, one's pursuit with art may only require taste, and not education (to educate their taste).
When people say that they do not "know" about art, they are victims of ambiguous and assumptive language. There is nothing that one needs to know in order to like art. People instinctual know what they like. One needn't any historical knowledge, only a genuine aesthetic reaction, which we are biologically programmed with (i.e. bright colors are used in nature to attract attention, like flowers, etc). This is referred to as taste.
"Hogarth...portrayed grand interiors as fitting settings for his patrons, but here he shows splendid decor as a contrast to the trivial pursuits of the young aristocrats: paintings of martyred saints overlook card tables; the dignified bust of a Roman matron is surrounded by amusing oriental figures bought by a flighty young bride with her stays undone and hair falling over her brow." - The British Museum
"...the series of paintings, the marriage of the Viscount and the merchant's daughter is quickly proving a disaster. The tired wife, who appears to have given a card party the previous evening, is at breakfast in the couple's expensive house which is now in disorder. The Viscount returns exhausted from a night spent away from home, probably at a brothel: the dog sniffs a lady's cap in his pocket. Their steward, carrying bills and a receipt, leaves the room to the left, his hand raised in despair at the disorder." - National Gallery
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole.
genre scenes or genre views, are pictorial representations in any of various media that represent scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. Such representations may be realistic, imagined, or romanticized by the artist. Some variations of the term genre works specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting, genre prints, genre photographs, and so on.
Further, wikipedia offers this: "In a letter to Huyghens, Rembrandt offered the only surviving explanation of what he sought to achieve through his art: the greatest and most natural movement, translated from de meeste en de natuurlijkste beweegelijkheid. The word "beweechgelickhijt" is also argued to mean "emotion" or "motive." Whether this refers to objectives, material or otherwise is open to interpretation; either way, Rembrandt seamlessly melded the earthly and spiritual as has no other painter in Western art."
- Isn't it weird that we didn't study Germany when talking about the North? What was going on there?
- Were the Dutch really so unique that they must be paid special, distinct attention to? What about them yielded this distinct visual culture?
- What makes Germany so different at this time when Martin Luther (father of the first phase of the Protestant Revolution) was German himself? Couldn't one assume that something similar happened to German religious life and visual culture at this time?